Syntax in Programming Languages

Syntax is the set of rules, principles, and processes that govern the structure of sentences in a given language, usually including word order. The term syntax is also used to refer to the study of such principles and processes. The goal of many syntacticians is to discover the syntactic rules common to all languages.

In computer science, the syntax of a computer language is the set of rules that defines the combinations of symbols that are considered to be a correctly structured document or fragment in that language. This applies both to programming languages, where the document represents source code, and to markup languages, where the document represents data.

The syntax of a language defines its surface form. Text-based computer languages are based on sequences of characters, while visual programming languages are based on the spatial layout and connections between symbols (which may be textual or graphical). Documents that are syntactically invalid are said to have a syntax error. When designing the syntax of a language, a designer might start by writing down examples of both legal and illegal strings, before trying to figure out the general rules from these examples.
It refers to the form, and it is contrasted with semantics, the meaning. In processing computer languages, semantic processing generally comes after syntactic processing; however, in some cases, semantic processing is necessary for complete syntactic analysis, and these are done together or concurrently. In a compiler, the syntactic analysis comprises the frontend, while the semantic analysis comprises the backend and middle end, if this phase is distinguished.

Levels of syntax

In Computer language It is generally distinguished into three levels:

  • Words: the lexical level, determining how characters form tokens;
  • Phrases: the grammar level, narrowly speaking, determining how tokens form phrases;
  • Context: determining what objects or variables names refer to, if types are valid, etc.