Nitrogen is a nonmetal chemical element. It contains more than 78 % in the atmosphere. It has the chemical symbol N and atomic number 7. Its stable inside typically contains 14 nucleons, 7 protons and 7 neutrons. It has 5 electrons in its outer shell. It is nonmetallic element of Group 15 [Va] of the periodic table. It is a colourless, odourless, tasteless gas that is the most plentiful element in Earth’s atmosphere and is a constituent of all living matter.
It usually does not combine with other atoms because its strong bond prevents it from reacting. Lithium is one of the few chemical elements that react with nitrogen without being heated. Magnesium can burn in nitrogen. It also makes blue electric sparks. The blue color is caused by the atoms being excited. When they get normal again, they release light. When nitrogen is excited, it reacts with many things that it does not normally react with.
It was named Nitrogen by the French chemist Jean-Antoine-Claude Chaptal in 1790. It first was considered a chemical element by Antoine-Laurent Lavoisier, whose explanation of the role of oxygen in combustion eventually overthrew the phlogiston theory, an erroneous view of combustion that became popular in the early 18th century.
Production And Uses of Nitrogen
It can also be produced on a large scale by burning carbon or hydrocarbons in air and separating the resulting carbon dioxide and water from the residual nitrogen. On a small scale, pure nitrogen is made by heating barium azide, Ba(N3)2. Various laboratory reactions that yield nitrogen include heating ammonium nitrite (NH4NO2) solutions, oxidation of ammonia by bromine water, and oxidation of ammonia by hot cupric oxide.
It can be used as an inert atmosphere for reactions requiring the exclusion of oxygen and moisture. In the liquid state, nitrogen has valuable cryogenic applications; except for the gases hydrogen, methane, carbon monoxide, fluorine, and oxygen, practically all chemical substances have negligible vapour pressures at the boiling point of nitrogen and exist, therefore, as crystalline solids at that temperature.
It is used as a preventive of oxidation or other deterioration of a product, as an inert diluent of a reactive gas, as a carrier to remove heat or chemicals and as an inhibitor of fire or explosions. In the food industry nitrogen gas is employed to prevent spoilage through oxidation, mold, or insects, and liquid nitrogen is used for freeze drying and for refrigeration systems. In the electrical industry It is used to prevent oxidation and other chemical reactions, to pressurize cable jackets, and to shield motors. It finds application in the metals industry in welding, soldering, and brazing, where it helps prevent oxidation, carburization, and decarburization.