What is the Difference between diamond and graphite :
Diamond and Graphite are the crystalline allotropes of carbon.
Difference between diamond and graphite :
|Each carbon is hybridised.||Each carbon is hybridised.|
|Each carbon is bonded to four other carbons tetrahedrally.||Each carbon is bonded to 3 other carbon atoms to form hexagonal rings.|
|It is a 3 dimensional polymer.||It is a 2 dimensional polymer.|
|C – C bond length is 1. 54 Å and bond angle is 109°28Ꞌ.||C – C bond length is 1.42 Å and bond angle is 120°. Distance between the two layers is 3.35 Å.|
|Carbon atoms are strongly held by covalent bonds.||The hexagonal layers of carbons are held by weak vander Waal’s forces.|
|Diamond is the hardest material. It is bad conductor of electricity due to absence of free electrons.||Graphite is soft. It is good conductor of electricity due to presence of free electrons.|
Structure of diamond :
In diamond, each carbon atom bonded to four carbon atoms situated tetrahedrally around it.
In diamond, each carbon atom is in hybridization and is linked to four carbon atoms by single covalent bonds.
C – C bond distance in diamond is 1.54 Å.
Structure of Graphite :
Graphite consists of a series of layers in which hexagonal rings made up of carbon atoms.
The fourth electron present in the pure ‘p’ orbital which is unhybridised. The electron become free electron. The distance between the two layers in graphite is 3.4 Å. These layers are held together by van der Waal’s forces which are weak. Graphite is a lattice structure.
Diamonds are used as precious stones for jewellery because of their ability to reflect light.
Diamonds are used for cutting glass and drilling rocks due to their remarkable hardness.
Uses of Graphite :
Graphite is used as lubricant.
It is used in the manufacturing of lead of pencils.
It is used in making electrodes of Electrodes and Refractory crucibles.