Pathology is the study of the of disease or injury. Incorporating a wide range of bioscience research fields and medical practices. However, when used in the context of modern medical treatment, the term is often used in a more narrow fashion to refer to processes and tests which fall within the contemporary medical field of “general pathology”, an area which includes a number of distinct but inter-related medical specialties that diagnose disease, mostly through analysis of tissue, cell, and body fluid samples.
Idiomatically, It may also refer to the predicted or actual progression of particular diseases as in the statement “the many different forms of cancer have diverse pathologies”, and the affix path is sometimes used to indicate a state of disease in cases of both physical ailment and psychological conditions. A physician practicing pathology is called a pathologist.
Importance of Pathology
The study addresses four components of disease: cause, mechanisms of development (pathogenesis), structural alterations of cells (morphologic changes), and the consequences of changes (clinical manifestations). In common medical practice, general study is mostly concerned with analyzing known clinical abnormalities that are markers or precursors for both infectious and non-infectious disease and is conducted by experts in one of two major specialties, anatomical pathology and clinical pathology.
Further divisions in specialty exist on the basis of the involved sample types comparing, For Ex: cytopathology, hematopathology, and histopathology, organs as in renal pathology, and physiological systems, as well as on the basis of the focus of the examination. It is a significant field in modern medical diagnosis and medical research.