Immunity is the ability of the body to defend itself against disease-causing organisms. Everyday our body comes in contact with several pathogens, but only a few results into diseases. The reason is, our body has the ability to release antibodies against these pathogens and protects the body against diseases. This defence mechanism is called immunity.
The immune system is a host defense system comprising many biological structures and processes within an organism that protects against disease. To function properly, an immune system must detect a wide variety of agents, known as pathogens, from viruses to parasitic worms, and distinguish them from the organism’s own healthy tissue. In many species, there are two major subsystems of the immune system: the innate immune system and the adaptive immune system.
Types of Immunity
- Innate Immunity: This types is present in an organism by birth. This is activated immediately when the pathogen attacks. These are includes certain barriers and defence mechanisms that keep foreign particles out of the body. These are refers to the body’s defence system. This are helps us by providing the natural resistance components including salivary enzymes, natural killer cells, intact skin and neutrophils, etc. which produce an initial response against the infections at birth prior to exposure to a pathogen or antigens. It is a long-term immunity in which our body produces the antibodies on its own.
- Acquired Immune: Unlike the innate, This is not present by birth. The ability of the immune system to adapt itself to disease and to generate pathogen-specific immunity is termed as acquired immunity. It is also known as adaptive immunity. The main function of These relieve the victim of the infectious disease and also prevent its attack in future.