Definition and Scope of Anatomy and Physiology

The word Anatomy derived from the Greek word anatomia, It is the branch of Biology, It concerned with the study of the structure of organisms and their parts. Human anatomy is one of the basic essential sciences of medicine. Anatomy and physiology, which study the structure and function of organisms and their parts, make a natural pair of related disciplines, and they are often studied together.

It divided into macroscopic and microscopic. Macroscopic anatomy is the examination of an animal’s body parts using unaided eyesight. Microscopic anatomy involves the use of optical instruments in the study of the tissues of various structures, known as histology, and also in the study of cells.

The history of anatomy is characterized by a progressive understanding of the functions of the organs and structures of the human body. Methods have also improved dramatically, advancing from the examination of animals by dissection of carcasses and cadavers (corpses) to 20th century medical imaging techniques including X-ray, ultrasound, and magnetic resonance imaging.

Anatomy is the study of structure, and physiology is the study of function. These approaches are complementary and never entirely separable. When we study a structure, we want to know, What does it do? Physiology lends meaning to anatomy and, conversely, It is what makes physiology possible. This unity of form and function is an important point to bear in mind as you study the body. Many examples of it will be apparent throughout the book—some of them pointed out for you, and others you will notice for yourself.

Physiology word derived from Ancient Greek word physis, which meaning ‘nature, origin. It is the scientific study of the functions and mechanisms which work within a living system. When we think of physics today we think of the study of how matter and energy work, but another way to think about physics is as a study of how nature functions. In that sense, physiology is also a study of how nature functions – in this case, within a living organism. Physiology can be divided into many sub-fields, including plants, animals, bacteria, and more, but most early physiology records focused on how human systems work.