Transportation is the process of physical movement of products and people from one place to another place. The means which are used to transport products and people from one place to another place is called Transportation. It facilitates to distribute goods from production place to another place in the country. It saves valuable time of the organization productivity. Here we have different types of Transportation.
Types of Transportation
- Land transportation
- Water transportation
- Air transportation
1. Land Transport
All Vehicles those move on road like scooters, cars, truck etc. included in Land Transport. But Land transport can be subdivided in to two more type: Roadways and Railways
i. Roadways: All states of a country are connected to each other by roads and highways. These highways are well-constructed and different types of vehicles used for different distances. Scooters, bikes and auto etc. used for short distances while cars, buses and trucks used for covering long distances. Buses is the main carrier for travelers, where as for carrying raw material and finished good from factories to market, Trucks are most useful.
Advantages of Road Ways
- Economical over short distances
- Speedier movement
- Lesser conditions of service
- Uneconomical over long distances
- It is fair weather friend
- Not suitable for bulk transport
ii. Railways: In all countries of the world, all major cities are connected with railways. Even some countries are also connected by railway. Trains carry people and bulky goods over long distances. India has the second largest network of railways in the world. Metro is the latest and improved railway system which is most comfortable.
- Large carrying capacity
- It is economical
- It is all weather modes
- It has containerization
- Slower movement
- Inordinate delays
2. Water Transportation
water transport included Boats, ships, steamers and submarine. Boats and ships are used as carriage of people and goods. In early days people used rafts and simple boats as water transport. Boats are used for short distances while ships are used for covering longer distances. Cargo ships are used to transport tones of goods like oil tankers for carrying goods, internationally.
- It is cheaper means of transport
- suitable for heavy and fragile products
- Easy Loading and unloading facilities
- Slow speed
- Limited service
3. Air Transportation
Air Transport includes airplanes and helicopters which are very fast means of transport. Today, almost all nations of our earth are interconnected by air transport. However, air transport is more expensive as compared to other means of transport.
An Aeroplan carry both people and goods from one country to another country, It flying over deserts, forests, mountains, seas and oceans. The place from where Aeroplanes take off or land is called an airport. Helicopters are most useful for rescue operations while disasters like flood, earth quack etc., as they can take us to places where Aeroplanes cannot go. Rocket used to go out of earth’s atmosphere, in space. This is the fastest mean of transport. With rocket, the human beings are able reach moon now.
- Fastest means of transport
- All weather friend
- Consumer satisfaction
- Reduced inventory holdings
- It is costlier means of transport
- Limited coverage
- Limited cargo capacity
Pipe-lines are the specialized means of transportation designed to move the items like crude-oil, petroleum, chemicals, coal, lime-stone, iron-ore, copper concentrates and gas. India has made a late beginning in this regard unlike U.S.A., U.S.S.R. and Middle-East, and the development is undertaken only in case of oil refineries to move petrol and gas from sources to markets.
- Uninterrupted service
- No danger of wastage
- Initial heavy investment
- Danger of enemy attacks