Social justice denotes the equal treatment of all citizens without any social distinction based on caste, colour, race,religion,sex and so on. It means absence of privileges being extended to any particular section of the society, and improvement in the conditions of backward classes and women. Social-justice in the foundation stone of Indian Constitution. Indian Constitution makers were well-known to the use and minimality of various principles of justice. They wanted to search such form of justice which could fulfill the expectations of whole revolution.
A general definition of social justicve is hard to arrive at and even harder to implentment. In essence, social justice is concerned with equal justice, not just in the courts, but in all aspects of society. This concept demands that people have equal rights and opportunities; everyone, from the poorest person on the margins of society to the wealthiest deserves an even playing field.
Social justice found useful for everyone in its kind and flexible form. Although social justice is not defined anywhere in the constitution but it is an ideal element of feeling which is a goal of constitution . Feeling of social justice is a form of relative concept which is changeable by the time, circumstances, culture and ambitions of the people. Social inequalities of India expect solution equally. Under Indian Constitution the use of social justice is accepted in wider sense which includes social and economic justice both.
Meaning and Definition of Social Justice
According to Chief Justice Gajendragadkar___ “In this sense social justice holds the aims of equal opportunity to every citizen in the matter of social and economic activities and to prevent inequalities”.
According to Krishna Iyer___ “Social justice is not an exact static or absolute concept, measurable with precision or getting into fixed world. It is flexible , dynamic and relative”.
Principles of Social Justice
- Human Dignity: Dignity of the human person is the ethical foundation of a moral society. The measure of every institution is weather it threatens the life and dignity of the human person.
- Dignity of Work and the Rights of Workers: In a marketplace where profit often takes precedence over the dignity and rights of workers, it is important to recognize that the economy must serve the people, not the other way around. If the dignity of work is to be protected, the basic rights of workers must be respected the right to productive work, to decent and fair wages, to organised and join unions, to private property and to economic initiative.
- Community and the Common Good: All individuals by virtue of their human nature have social needs. Human relationships enable people to meet their needs and provide an important vehicle for change . The family , in all its diverse forms, is the central social institution that must be supported and strenghthened. The way in which society is organised-in organised-in education, economics, politics, and government-directly affects human dignity and the common good.
- Solidarity: We the Indians are one human family, whatever our racial ethnic, economic, andf ideological differences. An ethic of care acknowledging our interdependence belongs in every aspect of human experiences including the family, community, society and global dimensions.
- Rights and Responsibilities: People have a right and a responsibility to participatein society and to work together toward the common goal. Human dignity is protected and healthy community can be achieved only if human rights are protected and responsibilities are met. Accordingly , every person has a fundamental right to things necessary for human decency. Corresponding to these rights are responsibilities to family, community and society.
- Stewardship: It is incumbent upon us to recognise and protect the value of all resources on our planet. While rights to personal property are recognized , these rights are not unconditional and are secondary to the best interest of the common good especially in relation to the right of all individual to meet their basic needs. Stewardship of resources is important at all level/settings-family, agency, community and society.
- Priority for the poor and Vulnerable: A basic moral test of any community or society is the way in which the most vulnerable member are faring. In a society characterized by depending divisions between rich and poor, the needs of those most at risk should be considered, a
- Participation: All people have a right to participate in the economic, political and cultural life of society. Social justice and human dignity require that all people be assured a minimum level of participation in the community. It is the ultimate injustice for a person or a group to be excluded unfairly.