workers participation is a system of communication and consultation,either formal or informal, by which the employees of an organization are kept informed about the affairs of the understanding a through which they express their opinion and contribute to management decisions.
Definition of Workers Participation in Management
- According to Keith Davis__Participation refers to the mental and emotional involvement of a person in a group situation which encourages him to contribute the goals and share responsibilities in them”.
- According to Walpole__Participation in Management gives the worker a sense of importance, pride and accomplishment; it gives him the freedom of opportunity for self-expression; a feeling of belongingness with the place of work and a sense of workmanship and creativity.
- According to McGregor Douglas__“The term worker’s participation implies a formal method of providing an opportunity for every member of the organization to contribute his brain and ingenuity as well as his physical efforts to the improvement of organizational effectiveness”.
Thus,it is the mechanism of the workers to involve in the decision-making process of the organization.
Objectives of Worker’s Participation in Management
- To install a good communication system.
- To develop mutual understanding between management and workers.
- To provide a sense of belongingness among workers.
- To avoid alienation and exploitation and to create a proper climate for cordial and harmonious employer-employee relation.
- To deal resistance to change. When the need for change is jointly felt by all partners of production its acceptance will be easy.
- To increase productivity.
- To promote Industrial Democracy.
- To provide psychological satisfaction.
- To improve quality of work life.
Stages/Levels of Worker’s Participation
The levels of participation are as follows:
This refers to management’s information sharing with workers on such items those are concerned with workers. Balance Sheet, production, economic conditions of the plant etc., are the examples of such items. It is important to note that here workers have no right of close scrutiny of the information provided and management has its prerogative to make decisions on issues concerned with workers.
In this type of participation, workers are consulted in those matters which relate to them. Here, the role of workers is restricted to give their views only. However the acceptance and non-acceptance of these views depends on management. Nonetheless, it provides an opportunity to the workers to express their views on matters involving their interest.
In this type,the role of the council is not just advisory. The management is under a moral obligation to accept and implement the unanimous decision of the council.
In the administrative participation, decisions already taken are implemented by the workers. Compared to the former three levels of participation, the degree of sharing authority and responsibility by the workers is definitely more in this participation.
In this type,the highest level of participation where decisions are jointly taken on matters relating to production,welfare,etc.