Traditional/Past-Oriented Methods of Appraisal
Graphic Rating Scales Method
The Graphic rating scale (GRS) also known as ‘linear or simple rating scale’present appraisers with a list of traits assumed to be necessary to successful job performance. A five or seven point rating scale accompanies each trait. Number and descriptive words or phrases that indicates the level of performance defined the points along the scale. The midpoint of the scale is usually anchored by such words as “average”,”adequate”,”satisfactory”, or “meets standards”.
A checklist of employee traits in the form of statement is prepared where the rater put a tick mark in “Yes” or “No” column against the trait checked for each employee.Once the checklist gets completed the rater forwards the list to the HR department for the final evaluation of the employee.
The following are some of the sample questions in the checklist:
Is the employee really interested in the task assigned? Yes/No
Is he respected by his colleagues (co-workers) Yes/No
Does he give respect to his superiors? Yes/No
Does he follow instructions properly? Yes/No
Does he make mistakes frequently? Yes/No
Forced Choice Method
The forced-choice method is developed by J. P. Guilford. It contains a series of groups of statements, and rater rates how effectively a statement describes each individual being evaluated. Common method of forced-choice method contains two statements, both positive and negative.
Examples of positive statements are:
1. Gives good and clear instructions to the subordinates.
2. Can be depended upon to complete any job assigned.
A pair of negative statements may be as follows:
1. Makes promises beyond his limit to keep these.
2. Inclines to favour some employees.
Forced Distribution Method
This method of performance appraisal is based on the assumption that employee’s job performance conforms to the normal distribution curve i.e. a bell shaped curve.Hence, the rater is compelled to put employees on each point on the scale. It is seen that cluster of employees is placed at the highest point on a rating scale.
It is also highly simple to understand and easy to apply in appraising the performance of employees in organisations. It suffer from the drawback that improve similarly, no single grade would rise in a ratings.
Critical Incidents Method
This technique of performance appraisal was developed by Flanagan and Burns.Under this method, the critical behavior of each employee that make a difference in the effective or non-effective performance is recorded by the supervisor and is taken into consideration while evaluating his performance.
Behaviorally Anchored Rating Scale
The descriptive statements about employees’ behavior, both effective and ineffective are put on the scale points, and the rater is asked to indicate which behavioral point describes the employee behavior the best.
Field Review Method
Under this method, the performance evaluation of an employee is done by someone who does not belong to his department or is usually from the corporate office or the HR department.The outsider reviews the performance of an employee through his records and holds interviews with the assessee and his superiors.
- Comparative Evaluation Approaches: Under this method, several comparative analysis are done, wherein the performance of one employee is compared with that of another Co-worker, and the rating is determined accordingly.The Ranking Method and the Paired Comparison Method are the usual comparative forms used in this approach.
- Ranking Method: In the Ranking Method, superiors give the rank from best to worst, to their subordinates on the basis of their merits. Here, the detailed description of why best or why the worst is not given.
- Paired Comparison Method: Under this method, the performance of each employee is compared with the other employee and then the decision on whose performance is better is made.
Thus, the performance of an individual can be evaluated using either of the methods that best measures the behavior of an employee and gives the exact evaluation of worker’s doings.
Under this method, the detailed description of the employee performance is written by the rater. The performance of an employee, his relations with other Co-workers, requirements of training and development programs, strengths and weaknesses of the employee, etc. are some of the points that are included in the essay.The efficiency of this traditional method of performance appraisal depends on the writing skills of the rater.
Graphic Rating Scale
This is the very popular, traditional method of performance appraisal. Under this method, core traits of employee pertaining to his job are carefully defined like Attitude, Knowledge of Work, Managerial Skills, Team Work, Honesty, Regularity, Accountability, Interpersonal relationships, Creativity and Discipline etc. Theses traits are allotted with with numerical scale to tabulate the scores gained by appraisee (employee) in performance assessment relating to his job by appraiser (employer) and sum-up to determine the best performer. Appraiser ticks rating of particular trait depending upon his endeavor in his job. Score vary form employee to employee depending up on his performance levels and endeavor in his job.
Example of Graphic Rating Scales Method:
|Knowledge of Work||5||4||3||2||1|