Scientific Management Techniques are as follows:
- Time Study: This technique measures the amount of time taken by a workman having specific skills and knowledge to perform a certain job. It helps the manager to determine the standard time taken to complete a particular job. In time study method, every element of the job is studied in detail. For this, a worker with average ability and skill sets is selected. Then a supervisor observer the worker and measures the time taken by the selected worker with the help of a stop watch to note the accurate time. It measures the time taken by a standard worker to do a standard job. In this way, a standard time is fixed to a particular activity. Taylor emphasized that by conducting experiments, observations and analysis, a fair day’s work can be calculated, keeping in mind an average worker. For this purpose, the formula given below can be used.
- Motion Study: It is a close observation of body and limbs movement required to perform a job. The main aim of this technique is to ignore useless motion and identify the most efficient ways of doing a specific job. It also refers to the movement of a user on a machine for a specific task. It removes all the inadequate motion and adopts the best possible way of doing a job. The motion study also determines whether the job has to be eliminated, combined or its sequence has to be changed to attain the required pace. It also boosts the productivity of workers by eliminating all unproductive activities.
- Standardisation: It refers to the process of setting up standards tools, techniques, equipment, working conditions, etc., for the workers. Along with this, workers should also follow quality standards. If the workmen are provided with suitable working conditions, then only they can work efficiently. The major objective of standardization is to establish performance standards of men and machines.
- Functional Foremanship: Taylor has introduced functional foremanship to enhance the supervision and control activities of workers. Here, a person works under the supervision of several professional foreman. Ex:- Under Taylor’s Eight-Boss-Scheme, speed boss is liable to improve the speed of workers, Whereas the work related to breakdowns and repairs are supervised by repair boss, etc. Likewise, various professionals are appointed to supervise various functional activities.
- Differential Piece Rate Plan: This is a wage payment method introduced by Taylor. In this method, efficient and inefficient workers are paid different rates. The most efficient workers are paid higher rate as compared to inefficient or less performing workers. The payment made to workers is based on the number of pieces produced, i.e., per piece rate.
- Other Techniques: Several other techniques are used by the management to improve the planning and standardization of activities. These techniques can be instruction cards for workers, slide rules, graphs, charts, etc.