Concept of Project Management
Project management is the discipline of planning, organizing and managing resources to bring about the successful completion of specific goals and objectives.
The primary challenge of project management is to achieve all of the project goals and objectives while honoring the project constraints typical constraints are scope time and budget. The secondary- and more ambitious-challenge is to optimize the allocation and integration of inputs necessary to meet pre-defined objectives. A project is a carefully defined set of activities that use resources to achieve the project goals and objectives.
According to the project management institute’s publication___ ” A guide to the project management body of knowledge a project is defined as ‘’a temporary endeavor was undertaken to create a unique product or service”.
According to project management institute___ ” Project management is the application of knowledge, skills, tools, and techniques to project activities in order to exceed stakeholder needs and expectations”.
Features of Project Management
- A single person, the project manager, heads the project organisation and function independently of the normal chain of command. The project organisation reflects the cross-functional, goal-oriented, temporary nature of the project.
- The project manager is the person who brings together All efforts to meet project objectives. because each project requires a variety of skills and resources, the actual project work might be performed by people from different functional areas or by outside contractors.
- The project manager is responsible for integrating people from the different functional areas or contractors who work on the project.
- The project manager negotiates directly with functional managers who might be responsible for the individual work tasks and personnel within the project.
- While the project manager focuses on delivering a particular product or service at a certain time and costs functional managers must maintain an ongoing pool of resources in support of organizational goals. As a result, conflict may arise between the project and functional managers over the time and talent to be allotted to a project.
- A project might have two chains of command one functional and one project and people in a project team and supporting functional units.
- Decision making accountability outcomes and rewards are shared between the project team and supporting functional units.
- Although the project organisation is temporary the functional or sub-contracting units from which it is formed are permanent. When a project ends, the project organisation is disbanded and people return to their functional or sub-contracting units.
- Project management sets into motion work in numerous supporting functions such as HR accounting procurement and it.