These are major Organizational Development Techniques. They are namely:
- Survey feedback
- Team Building
- Sensitivity Training
- Managerial Grid
- Management by Objectives(MBO)
- Brain Storming
- Process Consultation
- Quality Circles
- Transactional Analysis.
1. Survey feedback
The survey technique involves data be collected via a questionnaire. The collected information is meant to help managers make decisions. The answers to the survey feedback will range from quality of work, working condition, working hours, salaries, and employees’ attitude in relation to all of the above.
The team of managers proceeds to analyze and interpret the gathered data. They pinpoint problems, assess the results and start drafting plans for solutions. All the members of the organization are expected to submit this data. Manager meetings are meant to bring subordinates and superiors together in order to discuss the information and interpret it. All levels of management play an active role in this technique whose end result is implementing necessary changes.
2. Team building
Team buildings have been increasing in popularity as an independent component of Organizational Development. Within OD, team buildings are designed to improve the capacity of the organization’s members of working together in a harmonious environment. Organizational effectiveness can be boosted through enhancing work group dynamics and promoting a safe and understanding working place.
In order to help team members open up and speak their minds on work related issues, the professional trainer will lead group discussions. The trainer does not actively participate in the discussion, but merely guides the conversation in order to ensure maximum efficiency. Team buildings’ main purpose is to increase sensitivity to team members’ behavior by promoting a healthy group functioning. Interpersonal interactions and behavior play a significant part of team buildings, encouraging employees to express their views.
3. Sensitivity Training
One of the most popular Organizational Development techniques, sensitivity training asks employees to interact in order to better understand each other. As a result, team members get better acquainted, form bonds, cease to be judgmental and prone to become more motivated and efficient in the working environment.
Carrying out free communications and forming interpersonal relationships are bound to improve their group experience as a team, offering members the chance to unequivocally express themselves in a safe and controlled workplace. Sensitivity training will not only increase awareness of self but also awareness of others. These two are some of the main pillars of Organizational Development, on which trust and comfort are meant to build a new order within the company.
4. Management by Objectives
MBO is a technique of management development which was put forward for the first time by Peter Drucker in 1954. It is a method of achieving organisational objectives and a technique of evaluation and review of performance. Under this method objectives of the organisation are fixed and responsibility to achieve them lie on the managers and results are expected from them.
Achievement of organisational objectives is considered as the joint and individual responsibility of all managers. It also provides a perfect appraisal system. Performance of the managers is measured against the specific objectives. It is result oriented technique.
According to D D White and D A Bednar, “MBO is a technique designed to (1) increase the precision of the planning process at the organisational level and (2) reduce the gap between employee and organisational goals.”
4. Managerial Grid
This technique is developed by industrial psychologists duo Robert Blake and Jane Mouton. The concept of managerial grid identifies two major dimensions of management behaviour. They are people oriented and production oriented behaviours. Attempts are made to pay increased attention to both the variables.
In the diagram given below, production oriented behaviour is shown on X axis and people oriented behaviour is shown on Y axis. The point A having coordinates 1.1 managerial style shows low people oriented and low production oriented behaviour.It is impoverished management. There are many managers come under this category. Such managers do not face any trouble and they do not carry any risk too.
6. Brain Storming
It is a technique where a group of five to eight managers come together and find a solution to a problem. As the name suggests it involves storming of the brain to develop creativity in thinking. It gives rise to new ideas. The principle involves in it is that any idea, thought or plan put forward in a meeting must be critically evaluated. The participants are asked to come forward with novel ideas generated in their mind. It works on a premise that everyone has a creative mind and capability to generate new ideas.
7. Process Consultation
The technique of process consultation is an improvement over the method of sensitivity training or T Group in the sense that both are based on the similar premise of improving organisational effectiveness through dealing with interpersonal problems but process consultation is more tasks oriented than sensitivity training.
In process consultation the consultant or expert provides the trainee feedback and tell him what is going around him as pointed out by E H Schein that the consultant, “gives the client ‘insight’ into what is going on around him, within him, and between him and other people.”
Under this technique the consultant or expert provides necessary guidance or advice as to how the participant can solve his own problem. Here the consultant makes correct diagnosis of the problem and then guides the participants.
8. Quality Circles
Under this system a group of 5 to 12 come together at their own free will during working hours once in a week and discuss out the problems and suggests solution to the management for implementation. The supervisors remain present during the meeting. Quality Circles have their origin in Japan in nineteen sixties which improved the quality, reduced cost and heightened the morale of the workers. The success was due to workers’ participation. Total quality management or TQM is the recent development. This concept was adopted by the USA in 1980.
9. Transactional Analysis
Transactional analysis helps people to understand each other better. It is a useful tool for organisational development but it has diverse applications in training, counselling, interpersonal communication and making analysis of group dynamics. Nowadays, it is widely used as OD technique. It helps in developing more adult ego states among people of the organisation. It is also used in process consultation and team building.