According to Davis___ “Organisation is a group of people, who are cooperating under the direction of leadership for the accomplishment of common end“.
Koontz and O’Donnell___ “Organisation as “the structural relationship by which an enterprise is bound together and the framework in which individual effort is coordinated“.
- Principle of Objective: The Organization should set up certain aims for the achievement of which various departments should work. A common goal so devised for the business as a whole and the organization is set up to achieve that goal. In the absence of a common aim, various departments will set up their own goals and there is a possibility of conflicting objectives for different departments. So there must be an objective for the organization.
- Principle of Specialization: The organization should be set up in such a way that every individual should be assigned a duty according to his skill and qualification. The person should continue the same work so that he specializes in his work. This helps in increasing production in the concern.
- Principles of Co-ordination: The co-ordination of different activities is an important principle of the organization. There should be some agency to co-ordinate the activities of various departments. In the absence of co-ordination there is a possibility of setting up different goals by different departments. The ultimate aim of the concern can be achieved only if proper co-ordination is done for different activities.
- Principle of Authority and Responsibility: The authority flows downward in the line. Every individual is given authority to get the work done. Though authority can be delegated but responsibility lies with the man who has been given the work. If a superior delegates his authority to his subordinate, the superior is not absolved of his responsibility, though the subordinate becomes liable to his superior. The responsibility cannot be delegated under any circumstances.
- Principle of Definition: The scope of authority and responsibility should be clearly defined. Every person should know his work with definiteness. If the duties are not clearly assigned, then it will not be possible to fix responsibility also. Everybody’s responsibility will become nobody’s responsibility. The relationship between different departments should also be clearly defined to make the work efficient and smooth.
- Span of Control: It means how many subordinates can be supervised by a supervisor. The number of subordinates should be such that the supervisor should be able to control their work effectively. Moreover, the work to be supervised should be of the same nature. If the span of control is disproportionate, it is bound to affect the efficiency of the workers because of slow communication with the supervisors.
- Principle of Balance: It means that assignment of work should be such that every person should be given only that much work which he can perform well. Some person is over worked and the other is under-worked, then the work will suffer in both the situations. The work should be divided in such a way that everybody should be able to give his maximum.
- Principle of Continuity: The organization should be amendable according to the changing situations. Everyday there are changes in methods of production and marketing systems. The organization should be dynamic and not static. There should always be a possibility of making necessary adjustments.
- Principle of Uniformity: The organization should provide for the distribution of work in such a manner that the uniformity is maintained. Each officer should be in-charge of his respective area so as to avoid dual subordination and conflicts.
- Unity of Command: There should be a unity of command in the organization. A person should be answerable to one boss only. If a person is under the control of more than one person then there is a like-hood of confusion and conflict. He gets contradictory orders from different superiors. This principle creates a sense of responsibility to one person. The command should be from top to bottom for making the organization sound and clear. It also leads to consistency in directing, coordinating and controlling.
- Principle of Exception: This principle states that top management should interfere only when something goes wrong. If the things are done as per plans then there is no need for the interference of top management. The management should leave routine things to be supervised by lower cadres. It is only the exceptional situations when attention of top management is drawn.
- Principle of Simplicity: It should be simple so that it is easily understood by each and every person. The authority, responsibility and position of every person should be made clear so that there is no confusion about these things. A complex organizational structure will create doubts and conflicts among persons. There may also be over-lapping’s and duplication of efforts which may otherwise be avoided.
- Principle of Efficiency: The organization should be able to achieve enterprise objectives at a minimum cost. The standards of costs and revenue are pre-determined and performance should be according to these goals. The organization should also enable the attainment of job satisfaction to various employees.
- Scalar Principle: This principle refers to the vertical placement of supervisors starting from top and going to the lower level. The scalar chain is a pre-requisite for effective and efficient organization.