The term motivation is derived from the word ‘motive”. The word ‘motive’ as a verb this word means moving into action. Therefore, motives are forces which induce people to act in a way, so as to ensure the fulfillment of a particular human need at a time. Behind every human action there is a motive. Therefore, management must provide motives to people to make them work for the organization.
Thus,It may be defined as a planned managerial process, which stimulates people to work to the best of their capabilities, by providing them with motives, which are based on their unfulfilled needs.
Definition or Meaning
“It is the process of attempting to influence others to do your will through the possibility of gain or reward.” — Flippo.
“Motivation means a process of stimulating people to action to accomplish desired goods.” —William G. Scott.
Features and concept
1. It is a personal and internal feeling:
It is a psychological phenomenon which generates within an individual.
2. It is need based:
If there are no needs of an individual, the process of motivation fails. It is a behavioural concept that directs human behaviour towards certain goals.
3. It is a continuous process:
Because human wants are unlimited, therefore motivation is an ongoing process.
4. It may be positive or negative:
A positive motivation promotes incentives to people while a negative motivation threatens the enforcement of disincentives.
5. It is a planned process:
People differ in their approach, to respond to the process of motivation; as no two individuals could be motivated in an exactly similar manner. Accordingly, motivation is a psychological concept and a complex process.
Importance of Motivation
1. High Efficiency:
It is a system to releases the immense untapped reservoirs of physical and mental capabilities. A number of studies have shown that motivation plays a crucial role in determining the level of performance. “Poorly motivated people can nullify the soundest organisation.” said by Allen.
2. Facilitates Change:
It helps to overcome resistance to change and negative attitude on the part of employees like restriction of output. Satisfied workers take interest in new organisational goals and are more receptive to changes that management wants to introduce in order to improve efficiency of operations.
3. Human Relations:
Effective motivation creates job satisfaction which results in cordial relations between employer and employees. Industrial disputes, labour absenteeism and turnover are reduced with consequent benefits. It helps to solve the central problem of management, i.e., effective use of human resources.