Management Functions are undertaken by managers in organizations, There is divergence of views, The list of management functions various from author to author both in terms of the number of functions. These functions may be explained below:
It is the basic function of management. It deals with chalking out a future course of action & deciding in advance the most appropriate course of actions for achievement of pre-determined goals. According to KOONTZ, “Planning is deciding in advance – what to do, when to do & how to do. It bridges the gap from where we are & where we want to be”. A plan is a future course of actions. It is an exercise in problem solving & decision making. Planning is determination of courses of action to achieve desired goals.
It is the process of bringing together physical, financial and human resources and developing productive relationship between them for achievement of organizational goals. According to Henry Fayol, “To organize a business is to provide it with everything useful or its functioning i.e. raw material, tools, capital and personnel’s”. To organize a business involves determining & providing human and non-human resources to the organizational structure. Organizing as a process involves:
- Identification of activities.
- Classification of grouping of activities.
- Assignment of duties.
- Delegation of authority and creation of responsibility.
- Coordinating authority and responsibility relationships.
According to Kootz & O’Donell, “Managerial function of staffing involves manning the organization structure through proper and effective selection, appraisal & development of personnel to fill the roles designed under the structure”. Staffing involves:
- Manpower Planning
- Recruitment, Selection & Placement.
- Training & Development.
- Performance Appraisal.
- Promotions & Transfer.
It is that part of managerial function which actuates the organizational methods to work efficiently for achievement of organizational purposes. It is considered life-spark of the enterprise which sets it in motion the action of people because planning, organizing and staffing are the mere preparations for doing the work. Direction is that inert-personnel aspect of management which deals directly with influencing, guiding, supervising, motivating sub-ordinate for the achievement of organizational goals. Direction has following elements:
Controlling involves identification of actual results, comparing of actual results with expected results as set by planning process, identification of deviation between the two, if any and taking by corrective action so that actual results match with expected results. It brings to light all bottlenecks. Work performance and operates as straight painter to the needs of situation.