International Labour Organization (ILO)
International Labour Organization (ILO) is a symbol of social justice universal peace and human dignity. ILO was established on April 19, 1919, by Versailles Peace Conference as an autonomous body. ILO was the only international organisation that survived after the Second World War after the dissolution of its parent body, the League of Nations. Since 1919, the International Labour Organization has maintained and developed a system of International Labour Standard aimed at promoting opportunities for women and men to obtain decent and productive work, in conditions of freedom, equity, security, and dignity. In today globalised economy, international standards are an essential component in the international framework for ensuring the growth of the global economy provides benefit to all. India became Member of ILO in 1919, as an original signatory to the treaty of peace. It became a specialized agency of United Nations (UN) in 1946. The ILO is New Social Institution Trying To Make The Word Conscious That World Peace May Be Affected By Unjust Conditions Of Its Working Populations.
It deals with International Labour Problems. The unique feature of International Labour Organization is that it is a tripartite body consisting of representations of employers, labour and government.
There are three constituents namely the governments, which finances it, the workers. For whose benefit it is created, and the employers who share responsibility for the welfare of the workers.
- To provide employment to workers in the occupation in which they have the satisfaction and promotes full employment and raise the standards of living.
- To make provision, as a means to the attainment of this end and under – adequate guarantees for all concerned, of facilities for training and the transfer of labour including migration for employment and settlement.
- To establish policies in regard to wages and earning bonus and other conditions of work calculated to ensure a just share of the fruits of progress to all and a minimum living wage to all employed and in need of protection.
- To make an effective recognition for the right of collective bargaining, the cooperation of management and labour in the continuous improvement of productive efficiency and the collaboration of workers and employers in social and economic measures.
- To provide an extension of social security measures to provide a basic income to all in need of such protection and comprehensive medical care.
- To provide adequate protection for the life and health of workers in all occupations.
- To provide provision for child welfare and maternity protection.
- To provide provision of adequate nutrition, housing and facilities for recreation and culture.
- To provide assurance of educational and vocational opportunity.
Principles of International Labour Organization
Fundamental principles in Philadelphia Charter on which ILO is based are as follows
- Labour is not a commodity:
- Freedom of expression and of association are essential to sustained progress:
- Poverty anywhere constitutes a danger to prosperity everywhere
The war against want requires to be carried on with insistent energy within each nation, and by continuous and concerted international effort in which the representatives of workers and employers, enjoying equal status with those of governments, join with them in free discussion and democratic decision with a view to the promotion common welfare.
Role of International Labour Organization
1. Adoption of International Standards: The most outstanding techniques running common to the various activities of International Labour Organization is the adoption of standards. Although Conventions and Recommendations are the main instruments for setting international standards, recourse to other procedures has also been increasingly made. These include.
- Resolutions and conclusions adopted by expert committees and ad hoc conferences.
- Resolutions and reports adopted by bodies representing the views and interests of particular industries sectors of economy or types of labour.
- Resolutions and reports of regional conferences and regional technical meeting.
- Resolutions of autonomous bodies dealing with social security questions.
- Modal codes on various matters.
2. Creation of International Standards of Labour: An important activity of ILO is the creation of international standards of labour on various labour and social matters. This is done primarily by the adoption of conventions and recommendations. These Conventions and recommendations have covered a wide variety of areas such as human basic human rights, employment conditions of work, industrial relations, social security, employment of children and women, labour administration, social policy, and matters affecting special categories of workers.
3. Employment promotion: ILO assists countries in the pursuit of higher levels of productive employment. The efforts of ILO in this regard comprise:
- Exploring the short and long-term employment effects of alternative development strategies:
- Aiding the functioning of labour markets through appropriate policies and measures;
- Addressing the employment income and organisational requirements of unprotected and unorganized labour who form the majority of work-force in the developing countries;
- Assisting in managing the transition from state-run to market-oriented economies;
- Responding to the increased migratory pressure resulting from demographic changes, structural adjustment, and imbalances in world development;
- Encouraging productivity in formal and informal sectors; and
- Protecting especially vulnerable groups and the elimination of discrimination against specific groups.
4. Collection and Distribution of Information and Publication: ILO has been a world repository of information on labour and social questions and a publishing house. The ILO collects information on a global basis on a wide variety Research and of social and labour subjects and makes them available to the member countries. Statistics collected by ILO are universally regarded as a reinforces the activities relating to the Collection, of information. The ILO brings-out a number of authentic publications on major international labour and social issues standard reference works, technical guides on specialized topics, codes of practice on occupational safety and- health worker education materials, and textbooks on management.
5. Research and Studies: Numerous Researches and studies relating, to specific labour and social issues have been completed under the auspices of ILO and their results published. Some of the more notable areas covered have been industrial relations, social security, working conditions. Industrial safety and health, and manpower development.
Some other activities of ILO relate to such areas as:
- Promotion of universal respect for the observation of human rights and rights work;
- Undertaking regional programmes;
- Establishment of Industrial Committees;
- Undertaking special programmes for especially handicapped groups of workers such as children, women, migrants, and disabled; and
- Establishing collaboration with other international organisation having a bearing on its policies and programmes.