International Labour Organization Structure
Cooperation between government and employers and workers organisations is important for working with ILO. The ILO accomplishes its work through three main bodies, which are as follows:
1. International Labour Conferences ( ILC ) : ILC is the Policy-making organ of the ILO it comprises of 4 representatives representing governments, employers and workers in the ratio 2:1:1. ILC holds its sessions once in a year Delegates to this session may be accompanied by advisory not exceeding two for each item on the agenda. Delegates have the right to choose the committee, they have wished to serve and once registered a member of a committee, they have the right to speak and to vote. Because of this voluntary selection of committee, the representation of groups on any particular committee may not be equal. Consequently, when votes are taken the voting of each group is ‘’weighted’’ so that the total voting power of each of the three groups is equal. Each committee elects its own officers –a chairperson and a worker and employers vice chairperson. Just as with the Conference as a whole government. Workers groups and employers groups within the committees hold their own separate meeting to discuss their views of the matters of agenda. Observer from trade union organisations with a special knowledge of the subject Participates in the worker’s group it has become the tradition that one such observer is elected secretary of the group and , is informally recognised as having a special position in the plenary sessions of the committee. These committees are:
- The Credential Committee.
- The Selection Committee.
- The Resolution Committee.
- A Committee for the application of Conventions and Recommendations;
- The Drafting Committee.
- The Committee on Standing Order.
- The Finance Committee.
Functions of ILC:
- To formulate International Labour Standards.
- To fix the amount of contribution by the member states.
- To decide the expenditure budgeted estimate proposed by the Director-General and submitted to the Governing Body.
- To make amendments to the constitution subject to subsequent ratification of the amendment by 2/3 member states including 5 of the 10 states of industrial importance.
- To consider the report of the director General giving labour problems and assists in their solution.
- To appoint committees to deal with different matters doing each session.
- To select once in 3 years members of the Governing Body.
- To elect its President.
- To seek an advisory opinion from the International Committee of justice.
- To confirm the powers, functions and procedure of Regional Conference.
2. Governing Body:
It is the Principal organ of the ILO. It is ow political non-political parties body. It implements decisions of the ILC with the help of the International Labour Office , Out of the 56 members in it, 28 represent the governments, 14 employers and 14 labour India is one of the ten states of chief Industrial importance, The tenure of office of this body is 3 Years it meets several times a year to take decisions on the programmes of the ILO.
Functions of Governing Body
Functions of Governing Body are as follows:
- To coordinate work of the organisation,
- To prepare agenda for each session and subject to the decision of the ILC to decide what subject should be included in the agenda of the ILC.
- To appoint the Director General of the office.
- To scrutinise the budget.
- To follow up the implementation of the conventions and recommendations adopted by the ILC by member states.
- To fix the date, duration and agenda of the Regional conference.
3. International Labour Officer:
This is the third major and important organ of the ILO. The Director- General of the ILO is the Chief Executive of the secretariat. He is appointed by the Governing Body. His tenure is for 10 years and his term may be extended by the Governing Body.
Functions of International Labour Office:
- To prepare documents on the times of the agency for the conference.
- To assist governments informing legislate on the basis of the decisions of the ILC.
- To carry out its functions related to the observance of the conventions.
- To bring out publications dealing with industrial labour problems of international interest.
- To collect and distribute information of international labour and social problems.
Impact of ILO on Labour Welfare in India
Labour class is defined one of the classes most vulnerable to exploitation if not the most. Most of the labour laws in India are pre-constitutional. The concept of Fundamental Rights was introduced by the Constitution. Although most of the pre-constitutional laws have been replaced or curtailed following the Doctrine of Eclipse and Doctrine of Severability, not a lot of changes had to be made to the labour laws that were well passed before the Constitution.
The success of these labour laws must be attributed to the ILO, as the guidelines issued by the ILO were formed the principles on which laws were drawn. By observing the passage of Labour Laws in India ,through the various amendments, it is evident that the ILO did have a great impact on the Labour Laws in India.
ILO through its conventions and recommendations helps nations to draw their own set of labour laws for the better treatment of the working class and the preservation of their rights.