Group is nothing but to two or more people who share a common meaning and evaluation of themselves and come together to achieve common goals. In other words, it is a collection of people who interact with one another; accept rights and obligations as members and who share a common identity.
Characteristics of a Group
- A group contains 2 or more persons
- It is a Formal social structure
- Common goals
- Face-to-face interaction
- It is a Interdependence
- Self-definition as group members
- Common fate
- Face-to-face interaction
Group Development is a dynamic process. There is a process of five stages through which groups pass through. The process includes the five stages: Forming, Storming, Norming, Performing, and Adjourning.
The first stage in the life of a group is concerned with forming a group. This stage is characterized by members seeking either a work assignment or other benefit, like status, affiliation, power, etc. Members at this stage either engage in busy type of activity or show apathy.
The next stage in this group is marked by the formation of triads. Members seek out familiar or similar individuals and begin a deeper sharing of self. Continued attention to the subgroup creates a differentiation in the group and tensions across the triads may appear. Pairing is a common phenomenon. There will be conflict about controlling the group.
The third stage of group development is marked by a more serious concern about task performance. Efforts are made to establish various norms for task performance. Members begin to take greater responsibility for their own group and relationship while the authority figure becomes relaxed. Once this stage is complete, a clear picture will emerge about hierarchy of leadership. The norming stage is over with the solidification of the group structure and a sense of group identity and camaraderie.
This is a stage of a fully functional group where members see themselves as a group and get involved in the task. Each person makes a contribution and the authority figure is also seen as a part of the group. Group norms are followed and collective pressure is exerted to ensure the Process of Group effectiveness of the group.The group may redefine its goals Development in the light of information from the outside environment and show an autonomous will to pursue those goals. The long-term viability of the group is established and nurtured.
In the case of temporary groups, like project team, task force, or any other such group, which have a limited task at hand, also have a fifth stage, This is known as adjourning.The group decides to disband. Some members may feel happy over the performance, and some may be unhappy over the stoppage of meeting with group members. Adjourning may also be referred to as mourning, i.e. mourning the adjournment of the group.The readers must note that the four stages of group development mentioned above for permanent groups are merely suggestive. In reality, several stages may go on simultaneously.