History and Development Hotels in India

In India in early period, hospitality as an industry was not organised but was provided either on individual or village bases. Later Buddhist monasteries provided board and lodging to travellers. During Chandra Gupta Mauryas reign, inns and guest houses were established. Then some universities like Taxila also provided accommodation to Buddhist monks and such places were called Chaityas.

In India too the development of hotel industry is closely linked to travel. In India travel was mainly on animals  (mule, horse and camel) and for rest during their travel at strategic points Dharmashalas, Sarais, Chaupals of Panchayats, Chowltry (in south India) and temples and religious places were provided by rich people such as Rajas, Kings, Zaminddars etc. Usually free accommodation and food for travellers was given. During medieval period it was mandatory for the state authorities to provide food and shelter to the wayside traveller

Musafir Khanas and Sarais

        These developed during the muslim period. Many famous and well known musafir khanas and sarais were mase in the Sindh province during the Arab invasion and also at peshawa and Lahore. Mohammad Tuglak and Feroz Shah Tugluk made inns in northern part of india. Later, Sher Shah Suri, Akbar, Jahangir and shah jahan made inns in different parts of India. Jahanara Begaum built a very beautiful sarai at Sahibabad (Begamabad) and its beautiful garden is still there and is called Queens Garden or Azad Park. The Fountain in the upper garden has the inscription Gar Firdas Bar Rui Zaminst-Haminhastu.

Famous Sarais:

  1. Qutub Sarai
  2. Ladha Sarai
  3. Lado Sarai
  4. Sarban Sarai
  5. Daud Sarai
  6. Kallu Sarai
  7. Arab ki Sarai
  8. Sheik Sarai

Western styles hotels with the coming of Britishers in important cities like Calcutta and Bombay.

  • During this period boats were kept ready at ports. Agents look care of taverns and their luggage. Private carriage would take them to hotel on their arrival at the shore.
  • As early as 18th century there were excellent Inns in India. Some famous inns were:
  1. Hotel Pallanje Pestonjee (1840)
  2. Auckland Hotel (1843)
  3. Esplanade Hotel (1871)

Indian Hotels

Taj Group of Hotels. In 1903, JRD Tata constructed the Taj Mahal Hotel in Bombay the flagship hotel of Indian hotels company. It was the first hotel of international standards and repute, built by an Indian for Indians. For quite a long time Taj Bombay was the only hotel of Tatas. Later the company expanded its wings with taking over Ram, Bagh Palace in Jaipure and Lake Palace Udaipur.  Ram bag palace remained one of the best 10 hotels of world for quite a long time. Later the group started expended and opened hotels in Delhi, Madras, Goa, Varanasi, Calcutta, Bangalore and many other places. The group also operates abroad with hotel in England Taj also operates Flight catering service.

  • The Government realized the importance of tourism in 1962 when the there was a drop in tourist arrivals from 139804 to 134360
  • Incentives were offered by the Department Of Tourism (DOT)
  • Hotel Corporation and Tourism Corporation were established
  • Ashoka Hotel Ltd. And Vigyan Bawan were made in 1956 in a record time of one year.
  • In 1963 an ad-hoc committee (Jha Committee) was set by Government of India to Develop the Hotel Industry.
  • Formation of three corporation and ITDC in 1964 three corporation was setup by Government of India, viz.
    • India Tourism & Hotel Corporation
    • India Tourism Corporation Ltd.,
    • India Tourism & Transport Corporation
  • On 24th September 1966, the Government of India declared to merge these corporations and issued “ Indian Tourism Corporation Amalgamation Order 1966” and formed a new corporation- India Tourism Development Corporation (ITDC) with authorized capital of 5 core.