Introduction to Ethical Decision Making
The real Identity of a manager is to make decisions regularly and correctly. According to Alvin Trailer, ” The very speed of change introduces a new element into management, forcing managers to make more and more decisions at a faster and faster pace”. Nowadays management simply has become the process of decision-making. All the parts of management pass through decision-making towards goal achievement like.
Normative Frame Work of Ethical Decision Making
The use of normative theory to explain ethical decision-making needs clarification on two moot points. The first is that normative ethical theory represents an ideal and is not designed for the purpose of explaining and predicting behaviour. As it depict ideals,normative theory may not accurately reflect the process that is engaged in by individuals in actual situations.
The following principles are the ones most commonly appealed to in applied ethical discussions:
1. Personal Benefit:
This framework acknowledge the extent to which an action produces beneficial consequences for the individual in question. It also acknowledges a person’s right to life and freedom over his/her actions or physical body,information,privacy,free expression and safety.
2. Social Benefit:
Acknowledge the extend to which an action produces beneficial consequences for society.
3. Principle of Neutralization:
It is used to lessen the possible impact of norm violating behaviours.
An action is inherently right because of the duty,arising out of a stated or unstated belief or value system that one possesses.
5. Principle of Justice:
Acknowledge a person’s right to due process, fair compensation for harm done and fair distribution of benefits.
6. Categorical Imperatives:
This framework is based on the principle that an action is either morally right or wrong regardless of its consequences.
7. Principle of Lawfulness:
The above principles represent the spectrum of traditional normative principles and are derived from specific consequentialist and non-consequentialist theories. The first three principles,i.e., personal benefit, social benefit and neutralization,are consequentialist since they appeal to the consequences of an action as it affects the individual or society. The remaining principles are non-consequentialist and derive from duty-based and rights-based theories.