What is Balance-sheet?: Classification of Balance sheet

Classification of Balance sheet

Classification of Balance sheet presents information about an entity’s assets, liabilities, and shareholders’ equity that is classified into subcategories of accounts. It is extremely useful to include classifications, since information is then organized into a format that is more readable than a simple listing of all the accounts that comprise a balance sheet. When information is aggregated in this manner, a balance sheet user may find that useful information can be extracted more readily than would be the case if an overwhelming number of line items were presented. The most common classifications used within a Classification of Balance sheet:

  1. Current assets
  2. Long-term investments
  3. Fixed assets
  4. Intangible assets
  5. Other assets
  6. Current liabilities
  7. Long-term liabilities
  8. Shareholders’ equity

Total assets = Total liabilities + Shareholders’ Equity

The classifications used can be unique to certain specialized industries, and so will not necessarily match the classifications shown here. Whatever system of classification is used should be applied on a consistent basis, so that balance sheet information is comparable over multiple reporting periods.

There is no specific requirement for the classifications to be included in the balance sheet. The following items, at a minimum, are normally found in a balance sheet:

Current Assets:

  • Cash and cash equivalents
  • Trade and other receivables
  • Prepaid expenses
  • Investments
  • Inventories
  • Assets held for sale

Long-Term Investments:

  • Investments in other companies

Fixed Assets:

  • Computer hardware
  • Computer software
  • Furniture and fixtures
  • Leasehold improvements
  • Office equipment
  • Production equipment
  • Accumulated depreciation

Intangible Assets:

  • Intangible assets
  • Accumulated amortization
  • Goodwill

Current Liabilities:

  • Trade and other payables
  • Accrued expenses
  • Current tax liabilities
  • Current portion of loans payable
  • Other financial liabilities
  • Liabilities held for sale

Long-Term Liabilities:

  • Loans payable
  • Deferred tax liabilities
  • Other non-current liabilities

Shareholders’ Equity:

  • Capital stock
  • Additional paid-in capital
  • Retained earnings