National symbols of INDIA
National Symbols of India can Be explained as Follows:
|National Emblem||Lion capital of Ashoka at Sarnath|
|National anthem||Jana Gana Mana|
|National Song||Vande Mataram|
|National Language||None (Hindi is official language)|
|National Calendar||Saka Calendar|
|National Game||None (Hockey is not national game)|
|National tree||Indian banyan|
|National River||The Ganga|
|National animal||Royal Bengal Tiger|
|National Heritage Animal||Indian Elephant|
|National Aquatic Animal||River Dolphin|
|National Reptile||King Cobra|
|National currency||Indian Rupee|
|National Day||Republic day 26 January|
National Flag of India
The national flag of India is horizontal rectangular in shape and has three colours – saffron, white and green with Ashoka Chakra (Wheel of Law) at its center. It was adopted on 22 July 1947 during a meeting of the Constituent Assembly. It is also called as tricolor. The flag was designed by Pingali Venkayya. The proportion of National flag is 2 : 3. The first national flag in India is said to have been hoisted on August 7, 1906, in the Parsee Bagan Square (Green Park) in Calcutta now Kolkata. The first flag was composed of three horizontal strips of red, yellow and green.
National Emblem of India
The National Emblem of India is adopted from Lion Capital of Ashoka at Sarnath. The Emblem is adopted on 26 January 1950. It consists of four Lions standing back to back on a circular shape. Below the lions Horse on the left and the bull on the right of the Ashoka Chakra. The four lions (one hidden from view) symbolizes power, courage, pride and confidence. The motto ‘Satyameva Jayate’ inscribed below the emblem in Devanagari script means ‘truth alone triumphs’.
National Anthem of India
“Jana Gana Mana” is the national anthem of India. It is composed by Bengali poet Rabindranath Tagore. It was adopted as the national anthem of India on 24 January 1950. Since the Bengali song ‘Vande Mataram’ faced opposition from non-Hindu segments of society, the Jana Gana Mana was adopted as the national anthem of India. It was first sung in the Calcutta Session of the Indian National Congress on December 27, 1911. The approximate duration of the National Anthem of India is 52 seconds.
The National Song of India
Vande Mataram Is the National song of India. The meaning of Vande Mataram is “I praise thee, Mother” or “I bow to thee, Mother”. It was written by Bankim Chandra Chattopadhyay in the 1870s. Vande Mataram was chosen as the “national song” in 1937 by the Indian National Congress. Initially ‘Vande Mataram’ was the national anthem of India, but after independence ‘Jana Gana Mana’ was adopted as the national anthem. This was done because some non-Hindu communities in India had considered Vande Mataram as biased. So that is why Vande Mataram was made the national song of India and not the national anthem.
National Currency of India
Indian Rupee is the official currency of India. Udaya Kumar Dharmalingam is the designer of Indian rupee symbol. His design was selected from among five shortlisted symbols. The Indian rupee symbol is derived from the Devanagari consonant “र” (ra) and the Latin letter “R” was adopted in 2010. The Indian rupee is named after silver coin, which is called rupiya. It was first issued by Sultan Sher Shah Suri in the 16th century and later the Mughal Empire continued it. The flow of this currency is controlled by the Reserve Bank of India.
The National Tree of India
Indian banyan is the national tree of India. The scientific name of Indian Banyan tree is Ficus bengalensis. The reason for choosing Banyan is it symbolizes unity by its huge structure and deep roots. The Banyan tree also gives shelter to many different kinds of animals and birds, which represents India and its people from different races, religions and castes.
National Flower of India
Lotus is the National flower of India. The Scientific name of Lotus is Nelumbo Nucifera Gaertn. It is the flower of goddess Laxmi and symbolizes wealth and prosperity. It grows very uniquely in dirty water with its long stalk far above the water, bearing the flower on the top. The lotus flower is a symbol of purity. The message is how dirty your surrounds you should be pure.
National Fruit of India
Mango is the national fruit of India. The scientific name of Mango is Mangifera Indica. In India Mango is considered as “King of fruits”. In India, we can find over 100 varieties of mangoes, in different sizes, shapes and colours. The great Mughal emperor Akbar had planted about 1,00,000 mango trees in Lakhi Bagh in Darbhanga. Mango is the national fruit of India, Pakistan, and Philippines. The mango tree is the National tree of Bangladesh.
National River of India
The Ganges or Ganga is the national river of India. The Ganga was declared as the national river of India on November 4, 2008. The length of the Ganga is 2,510 km or 1,560 miles. The origin of Ganga is in the Western Himalayan Ranges in the state of Uttarakhand. The average depth of the Ganga river is 52 feet (17 meters), and the maximum depth is 100 feet (33 meters). According to the Hindus, this is the most sacred river on the earth. In fact, they perform many rituals on the bank of this river.
National Bird of India
Peacock is the national bird of India. It was declared as the national bird of India in 1963. The scientific name of the peacock is Pavo crastatus. The reason for choosing peacock as national bird was because it is a part of Indian custom and culture. Peacock is a symbol of grace and beauty. Another reason for choosing peacock as national bird was because of its presence across the country. It is a well-known bird for people.
National Animal of India
The national animal of India is Bengal tiger. The scientific name of the tiger is Panthera tigris tigris. The Tiger as the National Animal of India symbolizes the power, strength, elegance, alertness, and intelligence of the nation. Actually, the lion was the national animal of India before tiger. Till 1972, Lion was the National Animal of India. Indian Board for Wildlife was taken a decision in 1972 and declare Tiger as the national animal thus replacing Lion. Also, Project Tiger was started in April 1973 for saving the dwindling population of Tigers.
National Aquatic Animal of India
River Dolphin is the national aquatic animal of India which is also called as the Ganges river dolphin. Dolphin is Declared National Aquatic Animal on 18th May 2010. The presence of dolphin in a river signals a healthy ecosystem. The mammal once used to live in the Ganges, Brahmaputra and Meghna, Kamaphuli and Sangu rivers of India, Bangladesh and Nepal. However, the species is no more found in its early distribution ranges. The river dolphin is essentially blind and lives only in freshwater.
National Heritage Animal of India
Indian Elephant is the national heritage animal of India. Elephas maximus indicus is the scientific name of the elephant. On October 22, 2010, Elephant was declared as national heritage animal. Environment Ministry of India has declared the elephant as a National Heritage Animal in order to increase protective measures for the elephants. It is listed as one of the endangered animals by IUCN. The Indian elephant is a subspecies of the Asian elephant and found in the mainland Asia.
National Reptile of India
King Cobra is the national reptile of India. The Scientific name of King Cobra is Ophiophagus hannah. Only one species of snake, the king cobra, can build a nest. With its length up to 18.5 to 18.8 ft (5.6 to 5.7 m), This venomous snake is found in forests in India through Southeast Asia. It preys on other snakes, lizards and rodents. It has its cultural significance as Hindus worship this reptile.
The National Game of India
Some people considered Hockey is the national game of India. But there is no national game for India. When a 10-year old girl Aishwarya Parashar filed an RTI application to the Prime Minister’s Office seeking certified copies of orders related to declaration of the National symbol the Ministry of Youth Affairs and Sports replied that the Ministry has not declared any sport or game to be the National Game of India.