Organic farming methods combine scientific knowledge of ecology and some modern technology with traditional farming practices based on naturally occurring biological processes. Organic farming methods are studied in the field of agroecology. The principal methods of organic farming include crop rotation, green manures and compost, biological pest control, and mechanical cultivation.
These measures use the natural environment to enhance agricultural productivity: legumes are planted to fix nitrogen into the soil, natural insect predators are encouraged, crops are rotated to confuse pests and renew soil, and natural materials such as potassium bicarbonate and mulches are used to control disease and weeds. Genetically modified seeds and animals are excluded.
Organic Farming Methods
1. Crop Diversity: Now a days a new practice has come into picture which is called -Poly-culture- in which a variety of crops can be cultivated simultaneously just to meet the increasing demand of crops. Unlike the ancient practice which was -Mono-culture- in which only one type of crop was cultivated in a particular location.
2. Soil Management: Organic agriculture initiates the use of natural ways to increase the fertility of the soil. Hence, it focuses on the use of bacteria that is present in animal waste. The bacteria helps in making the soil nutrients more productive and fertile.
3. Weed Management: -Weed-, is the unwanted plant that grows in agricultural fields. Organic agriculture pressurizes on lowering the weed rather than removing it completely.
4. Controlling other Organisms: There are both useful and harmful organisms in the agricultural farm which affect the field. The growth of such organisms needs to be controlled to protect the soil and the crops. This can be done by the use of herbicides and pesticides that contain less chemicals or are natural. Also, proper sanitation of the entire farm should be maintained to control other organisms.
5. Livestock: Organic certification verifies that livestock are raised according to the USDA organic regulations throughout their lives. These regulations include the requirement that all animal feed must be certified organic. Organic livestock may be, and must be, treated with medicine when they are sick, but drugs cannot be used to promote growth, their feed must be organic, and they must be pastured.
6. Genetic Modification: Genetic modification is kept away from this kind of agricultural set up because organic farming focuses on the use of natural ways and discourages engineered animals and plants.