Indian River System: Himalayan Rivers and Peninsular Rivers

Indian River System

Indian River system is classified in to two types they are: Himalayan Rivers and Peninsular Rivers.
The Himalayan Rivers, as the name suggests originate from the Himalayas and flow through the Northern Plains.

Indian River System

  1. Indus River: The Sindhu River is found in the early Hindu Scriptures and mythological texts. It is known as ‘Puranik River’. It originates in Tibet near Mansarovar Lake. Flowing westwards, it enters India in Jammu and Kashmir, further flows through Himachal Pradesh, Punjab and enters Pakistan. Flowing further westwards, it reaches the Arabian Sea near Karachi. Indus is the largest river in Pakistan and is the country’s national river. Its tributaries in India are Zanskar, Nubra and Shyok, and Hunza in Pakistan. Sutlej, Ravi, Beas, Chenab and Jhelum are its other tributaries after which the state of Punjab is named.
  2. Ganga River: Ganga River is the largest river of Indian river system. It originates in the Gangotri glaciers.The upstream Bhagirathi joins the other stream named Alaknanda at Devprayag to form River Ganga. It has tributaries on both banks; its right bank tributaries are the Yamuna, and Son. While Gomti, Ghaghara, Gandak, Kosi. are some left bank tributaries. Ganges flows through Indian states of Uttarakhand, Uttar Pradesh, Bihar and West Bengal. It finally reaches the Bay of Bengal.
  3. Yamuna River System: The Yamuna is a major river system in Northern India. The river rises from Yamnotri and flows through Uttrakhand, Uttar Pradesh and Haryana. It passes through Delhi, Mathura, Agra and meets the rivers Chambal, Betwa and Ken to finally join the Ganga at Allahabad.. Major tributaries of Yamuna are Tons, Chambal, Hindon, Betwa and Ken.
  4. Brahmaputra River: Brahmaputra, one of the major rivers in India, originates in the Angsi glacier of Himalayas in Tibet. There it is known as the Tsangpo River. It enters in to India in Arunachal Pradesh and is called the Dihang River. It is joined by many other tributaries; the Dibang, the Lohit, the Kenula to form the main Brahamaputra River and flows its longest course through Assam, enters Bangladesh and finally falls into the Bay of Bengal. The Brahmaputra has the greatest volume of water of all the rivers in India.

The Peninsular Rivers

  1. Mahanadi: The Mahanadi is a major river in East-central India. It originates in the Sihava mountains of Chhattisgarh and flows its major course through the state of Orissa. This river deposits more silt than any other river in the Indian subcontinent. Mahanadi flows through cities Sambalpur, Cuttack and Banki.
  2. Godavari: It covers the second longest course in India after the Ganga. The river originates at Triambakeshwar in Maharashtra, and together with its tributaries Pravara, Indravati, Maner Sabri etc, It flows through the states of Maharashtra, Chhattisgarh, Madhya Pradesh, Orissa, Telangana, Andhra Pradesh, Karnataka and Puducherry, to finally flow in to the Bay of Bengal. Thanks to its long course, the river is described as Dakshina Ganga.
  3. Krishna River: It is the 3rd longest river of Indian River system with a length of about 1300 kms. Originating from Maharashtra’s Mahabaleshwar region it flows through Karnataka, Telangana, and Andhra Pradesh to finally pour into the Bay of Bengal.
  4. Kaveri River: It is a major river in Southern India and originates in Kogadu, Karnataka. In the form of a spring at Brahmagiri Hill at Talakaveri, Kaveri River widens as many tributaries such as Hemavati, Moyari, Shimsha, Arkavati, Honnuhole, Kabini, Bhavani, Noyill and Amaravati join it. The slithers about 800 kilometers across the three states, Karnataka, Kerala and Tamilnadu, slightly touching Pudducherry and drains in to the Bay of Bengal.
  5. Narmada: The Narmada and the Tapti are the only major rivers that flow into the Arabian Sea. The total length of Narmada flowing through the states of Madhya Pradesh, Maharashtra, and Gujarat. Amarkantak in Shahdol, Madhya Pradesh is the place of origin of Narmada. Flowing mainly through Central India, from eastward direction to westward, Narmada merges into the Arabian Sea.
  6. Tapti: The Tapti follows a parallel course to the South of Narmada, flowing through the states of Maharashtra and Gujarat on its way into the Gulf of Khambhat. Its three major tributaries are Purna, Girna and Panjhra.