Types of Crops
The following types of Crops are depending upon the season in which they are grown
- Kharif Crops: which are grown in the monsoon season in the month of June-September are known as Kharif crop. For Ex: Maize, Millet and Cotton. The seeds are sown at the beginning of monsoon season and harvested at the end of the monsoon season, usually in the month of October-November. Such crops require a lot of water and hot weather for proper growth.
- Rabi Crop: The name Rabi means spring. Which are grown in the winter season and harvested in the spring, i.e., from the month of October-March are called Rabi crops. Wheat, Gram, and Mustard are some of the Rabi crops. Various agricultural practices are carried out to produce new crop varieties. Such crops require a warm climate for the germination and maturation of seeds. They, however, require a cold climate for their growth.
- Zaid Crop: These are grown between the Kharif and Rabi seasons, i.e., between March-June. These crops mature early. Cucumber, Pumpkin, Bitter gourd, and Watermelon are zaid crops.
Agriculture plays a very important role in the Indian economy. It is the backbone of our country. 70% of the Indian population depends on agriculture for food and money. It is the major occupation in the rural areas. The cultivation depends primarily on the weather and soil conditions.
Which are grown to feed the human population are known as food crops. There are a number of food crops grown in the country.
- Rice: It is the staple food crop in a majority of regions in the country. Rice is a Kharif crop that requires high temperature, heavy rainfall and high humidity for proper growth. The areas with less rainfall use irrigation for rice cultivation.
- Wheat: It is the most important cereal crop in the north and north-western parts of the country. It is a rabi crop that requires 50-75 cm of annual rainfall.
- Millets: The important millets grown in the country include jowar, bajra and ragi. They are highly nutritious and are known as coarse grains. It grows in the regions which experience rainfall throughout the year.
- Maize: This Kharif crop is used as both food and fodder. It grows well in alluvial soil. It is grown in the rabi season in the Bihar state.
- Pulses: India is the largest consumer and producer of pulses in the world. Pulses can survive even in dry conditions. These are help in improving soil fertility by fixing atmospheric nitrogen.
Sugarcane, Oilseeds, Tea, Coffee, Rubber, Cotton and Jute.